If You have no First Aid Training

See to unconscious people first
Support the head in case the casualty passes out and chokes Kiss of life to start breathing Roll gently onto his or her side.

Do not move injured people unless there is immediate danger. You could make worse any internal and back or neck injuries.

If you are not sure what to do, leave well alone, but try to help if they are not breathing or are bleeding heavily.

Inside vehicle

  • Do not move unless there is immediate danger, for example from a fire.
  • Support the head in case the casualty passes out and chokes.
  • Remove any food, debris, fluid or false teeth from the mouth.
  • If there is bleeding from mouth and nose then turn gently to his or her side.
  • Look, listen and feel for breathing and chest movement. If you cannot detect breathing try to restore the casualty by the kiss of life. < td>

Kiss of life to start breathing

Roll the casualty on his or her back. Support the neck so that the head falls back to open the airway. Pinch the casualty's nose shut and hold the mouth open. Cover the mouth with yours and blow out firmly to inflate the lungs. Then release nose and mouth. Keep repeating until the casualty starts to breath unaided.

Outside vehicle

  • Do not move unless there is immediate danger, then only move a short distance to a safer place. Do not allow the neck to move.
  • Roll gently onto his or her side.
  • Remove any food, debris, fluid or false teeth from the mouth.
  • Look, listen and feel for breathing and chest movement. If you cannot detect breathing try to restore the casualty by the kiss of life.

    ( See column "Kiss of life to start breathing" )

To stop serious bleeding

Wear a pair of rubber gloves if available and apply very firm hand pressure to the bleeding point to stem the flow of blood. Use a pad or apply a sterile dressing and bandage firmly.

If conscious and breathing

Look for broken bones and hidden injuries. Gently support the casualty in a position of least pain. Avoid unnecessary movement.

People in shock -- pale and sweating -- should lie down with legs raised, if possible. But only if they are not injured or there is no risk of internal injuries.

Keep all casualties, including those in shock, warm. Do not give them pain relievers, alcohol, other drinks, food or cigarettes -- they may have internal injuries and will require medical treatment.

Reassure them confidently that help is coming